Protecting Islam or freedom?



The victims in Orlando were killed because they were gay, make no mistake. Because they liked the “wrong” sex and above all, they had the nerve not hide it, because they felt free. Thus, the fanatical terrorism is acting.

The homosexuality is not acquired after the birth neither is a mental illness. Some cultures and religions have accepted it and some other cultures and religions have not yet accepted it. We are confronting a fanaticism which wants to subdue the world.

Throughout the history, the religious fanaticism has been the most effective poison to unleash terror. The Islam’ issue is that, while other religions have forgotten the holy wars already for centuries, among the Muslims those are still present. The politically correct ones compare equidistant the religions and their holy wars over five centuries ago, with what it is currently happening with Islamist fanaticism. The big difference is that it happened more than five centuries ago!

Meanwhile the political opportunists like Mr. Trump, took the tragic events to attack the US government while urging to improve intelligence in order to better detect these radicals. He demanded a ban on immigration from Muslim countries, while refusing to ban the free purchase of weapons, “because people have the right to protect themselves“, i.e. the same old ennui rhetoric. Trump accused to Mrs. Clinton and President Obama for not using the words, “radical Islamic terrorism“, as a weakness. At that point I may agree, though perhaps was not the best time to try to catch some votes among the bloodshed.

In Spain it was even worse: the populist party ‘Unidos Podemos’, as they are funded by the Iranian regime, in addition to Venezuela, did not mention at any time that the author was a radical Muslim, but simply to say “our support for victims of Orlando and the two women killed. They were victims of the same scourge: The heteropatriarchy “. They also took the opportunity to campaign while congratulating to the Muslims for the Ramadan and mocking the Catholic Christmas. The populists are equal everywhere.

The Muslims themselves must fight against these jihadism’ cancer and must move towards a greater openness of Islam. And it is happening just the opposite. After the so-called ‘Arab Spring’, it has been a radicalization of those governments:  Turkey is walking from great openness towards a greater intransigence. Countries like Saudi Arabia that is favoured by the west for its economics while its population are undergoing a cruel tyranny that tramples all the human rights. And in Europe, in the Western democracies are allowing, under the false pretence of tolerance, signs of subjugation and religious radicalism.

The multiculturalism is failing. The multi-ethnic and pluralistic society observe with powerlessness and defeat what is happening. The western world and its values are in danger because we are not giving an adequate response to Islamic fundamentalism. We have forgotten our values and our ethics and, given our existential relativism, it seems like they are prevailing. The western cultures have overcome these stigma of the past, but we’re failing in the fight against the current challenges.


Nationalism and Marxism: an improbable equation



Nationalism and Marxism are antagonist and irreconcilable.            The Nationalists parties in Spain have completely wrong concepts about political theory. And about their own ideology, which is even more serious. Historically, in the 19th century when nationalist movements were born, like in the rest of Europe, they were born to bourgeois and conservative ideology. The left-wing Nationalist parties, which later on became separatist, emerged in Spain during the 20th century while in the rest of Europe remained of Conservative ideology. The idea of Spain as a nation became then something shameful for left-wing parties. Since then, there has been much tolerance with these separatist parties which have proven not to be responsible,  political inconsistent, disloyal and with a lack of respect for the rule of law. This is happening right now in Catalonia.

It seems like the left-wing do not know, and the radical left even less, that in Marx and Engels’s thought and doctrine the Nation occupies a clearly subordinate place. According to the Communist Manifesto “the proletarians have no country“. This phrase has been quoted often to demonstrate how the founders of Scientific Socialism had very little consideration to the nations, especially in this particular historical period when all Europe was getting crazy about the nationalities. It could be right that their writings were the result of political contingencies and interest in polemics sometimes, but both postulated the nation and the nation state’s subordination to the laws of historical progress, convinced that the economic unification of the world would make the nations superfluous and thus, the national conflicts would be nullified.

Marx stated in his works “The Holly Family” and “The German Ideology” that the nation was a historical and unnatural creation, which was due to the rise of the bourgeoisie: the nation expressed the politicization of bourgeois’ civil society to acquire class’ consciousness, to favor their own economic dynamism and interests, conquering the state, appropriating their own legal and productive apparatus, to the detriment of the old feudal and aristocratic states. While it is an exclusive product of the bourgeoisie, it is a transient historical phenomenon linked to the evolution of the capitalist’ economic system, and therefore it is bound to its disappearance after the implantation of the Socialism. The proletarians have no reason to address the nation nor to recognize it.

The Marxist theory crumbles any generalized principle of self-determination, as it is reactionary and even useless, because would not provide any advantage to the cause of the proletariat.

Our particular populist, Mr. Iglesias, the Podemos’ leader, said last week ‘I will support the rights of Catalonia‘. Some days later said on TV ‘it is our intention but perhaps could be something else‘; it is the same like when Groucho Marx stated, ‘I have these principles but I should have other’. Mr. Iglesias was Assistant Professor of Political Theory at the University and he knows that the Nationalists do not match with the radical left, so he is able to say one thing and its opposite. For the sake of getting votes in Catalonia, of course. Although it seems like the radical left separatists do not know, and this is probably the reason why they are involved in a great contradiction and great cheating to the citizens.


Trump, the Latinos and the rogue states



I wish that Donald Trump does not win the upcoming presidential elections in the US.

I have many reasons to justify such a wish. As an example, Kim Jong-un in North-Korea loves him: an editorial published in Pyongyang, North Korea, one of the so-called “rogue states”, referred to Trump in a very flattering terms, and describing him as a wise and visionary leader. The author of the text, published with the acquiescence of the local power of the Marxist-Leninist state, impinged on the many positive aspects about the policies announced by Trump, as his desire to withdraw all the US troops from South Korea. Trump spoke out last May in favor of opening a direct dialogue with the North Korean leader, the zany dictator Kim Jong-un, who has openly called for the vote for the Republican candidate! Trump has claimed that those countries like South Korea or Japan must pay for the deployment of US troops, stationed in those territories for decades, under his idea of “America comes first.”

On the other hand, Donald Trump, whose motto to launch his presidential race was “I am going to build a wall all along the entire Mexican border, and Mexico is going to pay for it“, again  showed his animosity to those who speak Spanish a few days ago: During a Trump´s press conference, some well-known journalist working for the Mexican television TV Azteca received a call and started to speak in Spanish. Trump´s campaign staff informed him that they were not interested anymore about the interview after which was programmed. It has not been the first incident starring Donald Trump with a Spanish speaker and a Mexican TV: The Mexican journalist Jorge Ramos of Univision TV had a verbal confrontation with the tycoon which culminated in the forced exit of the journalist at the hands of Trump´s security service. During these election campaign, Trump´s team has been closing over the access to most of the journalists and the Hispanic media, which are no longer receiving the appropriate accreditation in order to inform about it. Trump says that they have no interest in these media.

All these events are causing such a strong reaction among the Hispanic population of the US: In order to prevent that Mr. Trump win the November´ election, more than 750,000 legal residents in Los Angeles County (and more than two million throughout California), those who previously never found the time, money or patience to pass the tests required for the naturalization as US citizen, are doing it right now. Furthermore, those who, although citizens, had never before registered to vote, are registering now. Every election the relevance of the Latino vote increases, a community which is already about 27 million people who could vote in November. Trump´ outbursts and remarks on the Latino population, immigrants and especially against Mexicans, have been fueling the outrage and stimulated the decision of the residents with ability to make an opinion: only in California, are about 3.9 millions of Latinos voting. These makes an increase of 22% over the last presidential elections in 2012.

The South Koreans, the Latinos in the US are concerned about the slightest possibility of Trump winning the presidential election in the US. Many Americans share these concerns and so do I.



Fatwa against the Real Madrid




Being Real Madrid fan has become dangerous. At least at some places in Middle East. I still have fresh memories about the attack two weeks ago which sowed death in a ‘Madridista’ fans’ club at the Iraqi city of Samarra which took the lives of 16 people, when a new attack has hit to the Real Madrid fans in Iraq. This time, the terror occurred at the cafe Miqdadiyah, about 80 kilometers far from Baghdad, while the Real Madrid fans were watching the Champions League’ final on TV, which the Real Madrid achieved its 11th European Cup. At the time of the penalties, four armed men with assault submachine stormed the place and opened fire. “All the fallen’ fault was their passion for Real Madrid,” said the Real Madrid Association in Iraq, again hit by terror. The Daesh claimed both attacks in which most victims were teenagers and young people, aged between 13 and 20 years.

The solidarity of Real Madrid and FIFA with the victims and their families have not gone unnoticed by the Saudi radical cleric Al Qhayti, member of the Ulema’s Council of Saudi Arabia, who on May 23th issued a fatwa against the white club to whom he accused of siding with the “Shiite infidels”, the Islam’ wing to which the victims belonged: “Whoever supports the Shiites is against us and therefore our citizens should not follow its matches or support it,” said the Saudi religious calling on Saudi citizens with white heart to switching clubs.

The Iraqi press echoed this fatwa. The journalist Ali Dagher said that the main difference between Real Madrid vs Barcelona fans in Iraq is a matter of age: “the younger have grown up watching Barcelona winning so they became followers of Messi, but the veterans, those who know something of the recent history of football in Spain, we are Real Madrid’s. ” Until a few days ago the country was divided 50 percent between Madrid and Barcelona, but now the situation is changing, there are now more ‘madridistas’ after these sad events and the care showed by the club.

Mr. Florentino Perez, Real Madrid’ president, had a few words of tribute to them, ”they will always be a part of the Real Madrid’ memory.” The response of Real Madrid was immediate and warm which has impacted Iraqis, very used to their deaths barely have any space in the international media anymore. “The Iraqi fans have appreciated greatly the caring behavior of the club, including many who were Barcelona’s are changing colors. It will not bring us back out loved ones, but at least we know that there are people who remember us for who our lives mean something, ” said Hassan Nashat, in charge for the web ‘Iraqi football’, the most important in Iraq on football since 2001.

This is solidarity’ act for a club which has made of the stateliness its historic motto. But it shows also the awful situation in Iraq after the Daesh ‘occupation of much of its territory, whose aim with these attacks has been hitting to the Shiite population again in order to deepen the terrible wound afflicting to the whole country, a situation of which Saudi Arabia is not innocent.

These lines are my small tribute to the Iraqis, who are undergoing for endless pain since the last decades.


The Communists´Conspiracy in Spain



Pablo Iglesias and his populist party Podemos emerged from the wreckage of the communism. It is fully clear now. From the beginning of his political career Pablo Iglesias showed his disdain for IU (Izquierda Unida) and the Communist Party, portraying his party as a cross-party in order to attract voters from all the political spectrums. His contempt for those has been grounded on the inability of the classical Communists to seize  the power, nowadays. And the power for Podemos is the one and only goal of its political activity, as has been stated by its leader, Mr. Iglesias. The search for power has led to Iglesias and his University´ colleagues to mask their communist beliefs throughout all this time, up to now.

Podemos´ leader has now changed his mind and negotiated with those who formerly had disdained, IU. Iglesias is actually a seasoned communist, cinched in mobilization, propaganda and elections´ computation and  so opportunistic. Right now, it seems that both IU and Podemos have joined forces with the purpose of creating a strategic alliance. Podemos is losing votes and IU loses money. IU´ leader has been willing to forget all the offenses and grievances made by Iglesias in the past. As a result, they have not talked about anything other than positions on the election´ lists and even have signed up a lampoon: “We (IU) mobilize people and you (Podemos) would get the office.” This temporary joint venture will be called ´Unidos Podemos´ a very original and creative denomination!

The only good thing I could glimpsed about this covenant is that finally Mr. Iglesias, who portrayed himself for a long time as ´the new politics´ spokesman and, as the Spanish paradigmatic version of the Scandinavian Social-democrat type, at last, he has made clear what he really is: a communist, the ideological representative of one of the oldest political ideologies which has left behind more death people than anyone else throughout the history. Podemos is also a great support for the current regime which is bleeding  Venezuela, when it is already impossible either support or justify what the Venezuelan government is doing. It is a danger that in Spain could rule a party linked to such a regime, which nobody doubts that has been disastrous, and has ruined a country that once was rich.

At first glance, the crisis of the Spanish Left is more serious than it seems. Too bad for Spain.


President Santos in his labyrinth




Juan Manuel Santos, President of Colombia, has disappointed everyone. The former Minister of National Defense who struggled against the FARC and other guerrilla groups in the government of President Alvaro Uribe, the best President ever in Colombia in the recent times, has managed to put the people on the streets and bring the insecurity back to the nation.

Without going any further, the journalist Salud Hernández-Mora, correspondent in Colombia for Spanish Paper El Mundo, disappeared last week and still there are not any news about her whereabouts or the reasons for her disappearance. Hernandez-Mora holds dual nationality, Spanish and Colombian, and therefore the primary protection corresponds to the Latin American country. Garcia-Margallo, Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs said that everything is pointing out that to the National Liberation Army (ELN), the group with whom the Colombian government is holding talks in Ecuador, “it’s a much more decentralized and less hierarchical group than the FARC” according to Colombian specialists.

Meanwhile, the opposition accuses to President Santos, who currently has less support in Colombia than Maduro in Venezuela, of a provoking a “coup” by shielding the peace agreements that he is still negotiating with the narco-terrorists´ FARC, even without having closing them yet. As a result, the opposition and the Colombian Ombudsman are against it. Such agreements arouse massive rejection in the polls and with street demonstrations, but the government of Juan Manuel Santos has already boosted this peace agreement with the FARC to the Constitutional Court. It is surprising how President Santos stands in defense of the FARC´ positions, an organization which himself fought against ferociously.

The FARC and Santos´s Cabinet have reached an agreement on four of the six points of the ongoing negotiation: the agrarian problem (supposed the origin of the conflict at the very first place); the illegal crops and drug trafficking; reparations for the victims of the conflict and the guerrilla´s transformation into a political party. The FARC are the cause of the oldest American war, already since the 1960s, leaving 260,000 dead and 6.8 million displaced. Santos seems to want to reach a deal with the FARC above all, providing assurance that none of them would be extradited at the request of a third country, according to intelligence sources. It seems he does not care neither the consequences nor the opinion of the Colombian people.

In relation to the kidnapping, the organization Freedom House has called for national and regional authorities in Colombia to “act quickly” to locate the Spanish-Colombian journalist and “to take measures to ensure the safety of journalists throughout the country, safety seriously threatened “. The NGO Reporters Without Borders (RSF) and Freedom House have expressed last Monday their concern over the disappearance and the general situation of journalists and reporters, who are constantly at risk and threatened.

Juan Manuel Santos was a very serious and trustworthy people; he was once considered a hero when he was the National Defense Minister at Alvaro Uribe´s Cabinet. Uribe himself supported and endorsed him in his presidential race. Uribe is sorely disappointed, and so do I. Colombia is no longer safe.


The decline of populism in Latin America



Something remarkable is happening in Latin America: The left-wing’ populism which has ruled for years several some of the Latin American countries is currently experiencing a very serious crisis. In Brazil, the last week the Brazilian Senate approved to divert from office to the President Dilma Rousseff, during 180 days in order to promote her political judgment and whose most likely will result in her final dismissal. The Workers Party (PT) will leave the country’ political reins, after a political management characterized by her unpopularity and corruption scandals. Her ideological buddies in some of the other Latin American nations are experiencing similar circumstances: Except in Cuba, the Soviet-style dictatorship which has already lasted almost 60 years, in Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua or Argentina, the populist model is vanishing.

In Venezuela the situation is critical today. The “Chavismo“, now led by former bus driver, pro-Castro and placed in office by Hugo Chavez’s finger, with whom he shared devotion to Santeria and black magic, Nicolas Maduro is at his worst. The opposition is promoting a Revocation referendum to remove him from office. The president is using all of the state’ resources to keep the control and delay the validation of the signatures which the opposition has collected for that purpose. Venezuela’ security is deteriorated and it is a matter of concern for the rest of the world. The opposition has demanded to Maduro his resign from office after the state of emergency declared last Friday, which is threatening the human rights of the population and it is being used to repress the peaceful demonstrations against this harsh situation.

Rafael Correa in Ecuador maintains a political tight control. He applies a strong hand on any critical media: impossible fines to pay and threats of imprisonment against anyone who publishes something that he does not like, such as the poor management made by his cabinet on the April’ earthquake: the reception of aid offered by the United States was delayed, and the fact that he placed inexperienced people in charge to manage the crisis. Because of the adverse social climate, the president has announced that he will not go to re-election, although the law was changed and this possibility should be allowed.

In Bolivia, the economy keeps falling down. Evo Morales faces against serious corruption charges for helping to make business to an ex-lover, Mrs. Gabriela Zapata, arrested and prosecuted for influence peddling and illicit enrichment. Furthermore, Evo Morales lost the referendum to change the constitution in order to remain in power, although he denounced fraud in the process, of course.

In Argentina the end of populism is a fact. The Argentine ballot dismissed to Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, after leaving a ruined economy and being splattered by corruption’ issues. The new President, the conservative Mauricio Macri, has launched a campaign against corruption and currently some senior members of the former cabinet and her husband’s, Nestor Kirchner are being charged. She is trying to protected herself from Justice calling for demonstrations among her faithful followers, whose, inexplicably she still has some.

In Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega, one of the former leaders of the Sandinist Revolution and pro-Soviet communist, has reconverted the Chavista populism to survive politically and remain in office. He also faced the scandal of sexual abusing of his step daughter, as she informed to the press in 1998. Nicaragua depends on the Venezuelan oil to survive: It is the second poorest country in Latin America.

The “assault to the Heaven” has become a big failure. Populism has not helped the underprivileged who voted for its leaders: furthermore, they have ended up with the civil rights and freedom and they have been more corrupt than those who preceded them. We must learn in Europe about the others’ mistakes.


Neighborhood relations: key in holding back terrorism



A good neighbor is something very important for the security of a country. Last week Mr. Abdelhak El Khayam visited Spain; he has in his hands the ultimate responsibility for the fight against terrorism in Morocco, therefore he is an official of the highest relevance for Spain and for the rest of Europe, given the recent jihadist attacks in France and Belgium. The words of the French Minister for Sports, who has expressed her concerns about the potential risk involved in the coming European Football Championship to be held in France, are giving us the indications that we are on high alert.

The military intervention in Syria has reduced the influence of Daesh in this country where the terrorists are losing control gradually of the territories which they formerly occupied. Now, it is very worrying that many of the jihadists have moved to Libya, and whether they are in Libya, are very close to Morocco, and therefore to Spain, and therefore to Europe. And that is very dangerous for our countries. We must keep in consideration that they have taken over much of the Gaddafi ‘s military arsenal, which gives an idea about the threat.

El Khayam also spoke about the risk and challenge involved in the crisis of refugees from Syria, a humanitarian crisis of enormous proportions and the displacement’ flows of thousands of people who are taking place. So far, the terrorist’ networks were using two different ways: arms’ trafficking and illegal immigration. Now, the Daesh has seen an opportunity involving to this refugees’ crisis, attempting to introduce terrorists among those people, in order to attack Europe. There is no doubt that the Syrian refugees should be treated as people escaping from war, but given the complexity of the situation also requires us to be vigilant with regards to them and to all organizations that work with them. We must keep it in mind, and it should be possible to cast these concerns without provoking harsh criticism.

Morocco should be a barrier to stop the spread of Jihadism and other kind of crime to Europe, and it seems that they are doing a good job in that regard. Of course Morocco has not always been the ideal neighbor. The relationship with the Alawite kingdom have always been kind of complex.

But there is a high risk in Ceuta and Melilla, the Spanish cities in Africa, where it has been detected some jihadist cells recruiting young fighters to send to Syria and Iraq. These cities have been stops from weapons trafficking’ networks installed in Belgium which are being using the same route already for several years. The Belgian authorities, after the Molenbeek’ attacks, have begun to change attitudes and make some change on its weapons’ legislation, as well as facilitating the exchange of information in this field, which is essential, a fact that not happened hitherto. Belgium has not been an example of good neighborhood.

We must be aware about the terrorism as a global phenomenon, it does not belong only to just a unique region, and it requires the cooperation of all the countries. When we have a neighbor with whom collaboration is null, it means that we must redouble our vigilance. We are able to defend our territory, but if there is a country with common borders which does nothing to fight against this danger, this country puts all of us at risk.

Dilma’s House of Cards



There is something wrong about Brazil’ politics. There are all sorts of accusations against the politicians in Brazil: from taking bribes; or concealing from the local Tax authorities bank accounts abroad; or planning the escape of prison of a country’s convict in a private plane. The main accusation that could cost to Rousseff the Presidency of Brazil is not the Petrobras’ bribery scandal which is splashing her government. It is also not the accusation about her 2014 presidential re-election campaign received diverted money from the state oil company and also from the biggest public construction companies, as one of these construction companies’ former executive Andrade Gutierrez declared to the prosecutors.

The central accusation against Rousseff is the violation of the tax rules, making up the budget’ deficit, which in Brazil is called “fiscal pedalling” which involves the use of public banks’ money to cover  the government accountability’ programs.

This particular process has caused a rift in Brazil and it is dividing to those who believe that it would be fair to dismiss the President, from those who argue that it would be a terrible injustice or even a coup. Dilma has the unconditional support of the Bolivarian axis, which always saw this Brazilian cabinet as an economic giant and a loyal political ally to the Bolivarian revolution, not the best partners from my point of view. On the other side, Argentina and Colombia have been unwilling to make an opinion publicly although no one denies indoors about the concern and consequences of the impeachment process opened against the President of Brazil.

The news in Brazil are running with breakneck speed. Waldir Maranhao, the interim president of Congress, annulled the trial of Rousseff in the Senate on May 9th, and he reversed the decision the following day. Maranhao is also investigated for corruption. Although Dilma still resists: as the last attempt to stop her impeachment, her government presented on May 10th an appeal in the Supreme Court by “legal defects” in the legal procedure when starting the process.

The impeachment process also has been questioned because some of its promoters are involved in corruption scandals which would exceed the accusations against Rousseff. Eduardo Cunha, former Senate’ President, who is the impeachment ‘process leader against Rousseff, was suspended from office for being investigated recently by the Petrobras’ issue. Luis Almagro, OAS Secretary General, has questioned this process’ legitimacy after meeting with Rousseff in Brasilia: “a high percentage of congressman and senators who might be involved in this process, are being investigated or charged from corruption affairs.” A report of the NGO Transparency Brazil revealed that 49 of the 81 members of the Senate have been convicted or accused of crimes at some point. There is almost the same percentage in the Congress’ Chamber.

Dilma is very isolated; she has lost the support of the political parties of the cabinet’ coalition, and no longer has much of the strong support from the underprivileged Brazilians, her usual biggest sponsor. According to the polls her political support has fallen to 10%, and 61% of the population approve her impeachment. With or without Dilma Rousseff, the future ahead for Brazil in such a politicians’ hands is devastating.


Cortes & Pizarro: The great Conquerors


The Spanish conquerors have been really mistreated. They have been turned into a politically incorrect issue. The nations which they helped out to form, do not recognize them as their own, and in the case of Pizarro it is even more painful. Pizarro began his legend 20 years after Cortes conquered Tenochtitlan. At that particular time, Cortes was considered already a great hero by his fellow countrymen in Castile. He was so charming that even the Emperor Moctezuma had for him a kind of Stockholm´ syndrome. The hero´s image was admired by an entire generation; he was long seen abroad as the stereotype of the European hero.

Francisco Pizarro was a different kind. Born in Trujillo (Extremadura, Spain), Pizarro was the bastard son of a nobleman related to Hernan Cortes. It has been believed that both were cousins, although in reality they were uncle and nephew. Pizarro was 50 years old when he joined to Diego de Almagro to travel South America in order to search for the another great American empire of the time: The Incas. The Europeans had brought the smallpox illness in 1525, which had already killed to half of the Inca population; the arrival in Peru of Francisco Pizarro was the final push to conquer an empire tottered because of diseases, famines and the war of their two main leaders, Atahualpa and Huascar.

Cortes was charming and he went to the royal court of Charles V to tell his exploits. Pizarro did not seem to be made as the heroes are made. As a result, the world reminded him in the wrong way:  greedy, cruel and seeking for his personal interest. Because of several historical researches over the years, a new legend arose about the humble Pizarro, the unprivileged one who left aside poverty and swelled the ranks of the traditional nobility. Pizarro´s reputation was cleaned up by Hispanics’ historian W. H. Prescott, who in his “History of the Conquest of Peru” noted that Spain had neglected one of its most famous heroes, “No Spaniard has ever tried to write about the history of Peru´s conquests based on original documents.”

 After the US triggered Cuba´s war in 1898, the US joined the conquerors´ portrait as genocide for having destroyed the native cultures upon their arrival, despite of being these cultures rather bloody by the way. Neither Mexico nor Peru have ever considered Cortes or Pizarro as founding fathers of their countries. The documents discovered by the Hispanic’ historian G. Lohmann showed that the real Francisco Pizarro was not alike he is portrayed by the Black Legend at all. He was not a despicable person and he died completely broke. He claimed insistently to respect the Incas´ properties and he promoted laws to protect the Indians. He did not mean to destroy the Inca´ empire, as it can be proven when reading his letters.

In Mexico there is an anti Hispanic stream although Cortes has aroused more interest due to his own attractive personality and because he instructed to the chroniclers to extolling his exploits in the very first place. Pizarro´s deeds were also written, but no one bothered to highlight his figure. Pizarro never wanted to take away the Incas´ land. The Spanish Crown seized the temples and palaces of the Incas, scrupulously respecting the lands of the population. The New Laws of the Indies of 1542 were the first Habeas Corpus of the history with the purpose of defence the local population´ rights.

From the Latin American left-wing´ politicians, the conquerors have been portrayed as genocides, although there is no historical basis for stating such a theory. On the other hand, since some years ago the conquest of America is not studied in schools anymore for being considered ´politically incorrect´, shame of Spain! The genocide was committed by the English men. They colonized the United States with the idea that ´the best Indian is the dead Indian´ and they stole after the Indians´ land. No wonder that they created the Black Legend against Spain. We can not label Cortes & Pizarro as genocides. The point is that in certain political sectors, genocide is a word used too easily.